Nov 082013


Last week I gave an internal presentation to my fellow consultants at CGI on the principals of data modelling/data architecture, modelling within Visual Studio 2013 and a history of the (ADO.NET) Entity Framework.

I’ve attached the slide deck to this article, and also in my presentations page.

Data Modelling – Concepts

imagesOnce we get past the initial introductions, I dove into some of the fundamental principles of data access design.  These are the key design considerations which every mature solution should take into consideration – particularly when building a design which marries to the ACID principles.

This part of the presentation wasn’t directly related to either data modelling in Visual Studio or implementing the Entity Framework ORM, but I don’t think it is a bad idea to restate some core data access design goals where possible.

Once we were past the concepts, we went straight into…

Visual Studio 2013 Database Projects

To be honest with you, I forced myself to use Visual Studio’s out-of-the-box database project as a design tool instead of jumping into SQL Management Studio as I normally would.  Partly, this was to give the tools some fair use – the designer support is still a bit sluggish – but there’s still some niceties to be had here.

The latest incarnation has some decent and attractive features, the SQL Compare functionality is simply superb for harmonizing T-SQL based on instances or other code repositories, and the T-SQL import wizard helps with getting projects up and running quickly.

Possibly the best feature is the publishing wizard, which you can use to easily deploy to SQL Azure or to instances; or to run as part of an automated build.

The Entity Framework

imagesThe second half of the presentation introduces the Entity Framework, and covers off a bit of history.  I’ve used the EF since the first version, so I have some experiences to share here.

Besides showing how the entity model is generated from the database schema, I wanted to impress upon the audience the costs vs. benefits of adopting an ORM solution – particularly focused on the quick wins against the limitations and potential performance problems.

Ultimately this lead into a review of a generic interface pattern which I’ve been working on for the past few weeks, and some of the power of consolidating common data access methods (e.g. Create, Read, Update and Delete) into a common implementation using generics.

The Surprise

At the end, I was planning to surprise the audience by “live switching” from accessing a local SQL instance to querying data from SQL Azure by simply changing a connection string, but due to having to move rooms at the last minute, the 4G connection I was using hadn’t been authorised on the SQL Azure Database, so the surprise failed.

The awesome takeaway (blown surprise aside) was that using the Entity Framework, there was no need to do any recompilation – the model worked seamlessly with local and Azure-based data stores.  I guess I’ll have to save that surprise for another audience at another time.


To be honest, I should have split this into two presentations.  There’s so much to discuss when it comes to decent data design principles, so I could have talked about those and data modelling in a single session.  The Entity Framework represents a large body of work in its own right, I could speak for hours about how it can be adapted and extended.

We didn’t even scratch the surface..  This may lead to a follow-up presentation potentially.  Here’s the slide deck from the day.

Sep 132012

In this session, learn about the DPC (Database Private Cloud) Reference Architecture and how it can be used to consolidate thousands of databases on a single scalable platform.

The session will drill into the hardware and software configuration and cover how its wired together. We will cover the use cases, savings, workload types and migrating workloads to the solution as well as discuss management options.

Presented by Danny Tambs

Disclaimer: These are conference session notes I compiled during various sessions at Microsoft Tech Ed 2012, September 11-14, 2012.  The majority of the content comprises notes taken from the presentation slides accompanied, occasionally, by my own narration.  Some of the content may be free hand style.  Enjoy… Rob


The session covers a whitepaper produced by HP and Microsoft.  The following is a summary of the session:  This session is specifically about the DBC Reference Architecture (appliance/recipe).

  • Reference Whitepaper
  • Benefits
  • Architecture drilldown
    • Components
    • Manageability
    • Achieving high availabilitye)
    • Metering and chargeback


Different hardware profiles, ages and versions.  Silos and data formats create disparity across organisations and within them.  Becomes costly to maintain, to upgrade regularly and to find experience staff to support it.  Older hardware is typically more expensive to run.

Private Cloud

NIST (US) put together a loose set of definitions of what to expect from a “private cloud”.  Capabilities include: elasticity, resource pooling, self-service and control & customize.  Much shorter deployment times (hours rather than weeks).

MS/HP DBC Reference Architecture

  • Complete – factory built, virtualization to poll & consulting and support
  • Optimise – Central console, tuned for SQL Server workload, migrate with near zero downtime
  • Agile – Provision on demand, meter and chargeback usage, modular for scale as you go


  • Box product (buy, install)
  • Appliances/Reference Architectures (recipes, buy premade or build your own)
  • The Cloud (SQL Azure)

Here is the throughput you are aiming to get.  How do you ensure you have enough I/O?

DBC Platform

Major benefits include reduced configuration steps – the appliances are prebuilt (thousands of man hours) and can meet the operational requirements.

  • Reduces power consumption,
  • reduces complexity to manage
  • Retire older hardware and consolidate

Not particularly recommended for databases over 1 TB, better for smaller gigabyte sized DB solutions.  Appears to be targeted at consolidation of hundreds or thousands of disparate servers into a managed virtual environment.  Additional benefits include skillset changes, DBAs can better manage applications, not just services.

Deep Dive: DBC Plug and Play

Base configuration: is very basic configuration with minimalistic disk, I/O, CPU and memory. 

IMG_2211 IMG_2212

Software stack


Of course you can use your own monitoring and other software packages, but they must be certified with Windows Server.  Many anti-virus packages have caused blue screens by having not been certified to work with clusters, for example.

Hardware Profile Configuration


Built in reliability and H/A features – RAID controllers, spare disks etc.  The software to manage the rack is built in, no extra software required. 

DBC Common Usage Scenario

Storage is comprised of ‘hardware blocks’ of storage.  iSCSI storage cabling contains redundancy so that missing cable doesn’t drop the iSCSI availability (following best practice)


Networking – HP ProCurve switches (10 GB switches) with redundancy.  Includes iSCSI storage traffic connectivity.  Traffic partitioned into general network and storage.


The baseline sizing used for the hardware and the solution.  A single rack configuration is optimized for a balanced mix of 200 database instances.  There are tools available to determine socket-to-VCPU translation in the virtual world.

Size depends on workloads.  Need to baseline based on your own specific workload needs.  In a 4 Blade configuration, the majority of management software is on the Blade 1, and that only comprises less than 20% of the Blade’s capacity (or less).

Supports virtualized clusters for reduced downtime and higher availability.  How do you solve disaster recovery scenarios?  What’s your bottleneck?

Why isn’t this solved by hardware?  Important to note this is a consolidation reference, not a HA reference.  There are options though.  Database mirroring, etc

Do you need HA?  Sometimes no.  Do you need 1 minute failover? Not necessarily.

Linking to the Customer Network – link aggregation control protocol.  Twin switches, with built in redundancy.
Only forced downtime is upgrading/flashing of firmware.  Workload can automatically failover or it can be live migrated before upgrade.

Performance Figures


No caching!  24/7 full uptime capability baselined against true random i/o reads.   Want more? Server 2012 brings a lot to the table:


1 million IOPS possible in a virtual environment. 


MAP toolkit.  Will profile existing SQL Server instances, categorizes and builds catalog of SQL Server.  Helps build consolidation strategy.  Captures I/O, performance information and can advise what kind of VM profile is required to consolidate.  Recommended to run the tool over a few weeks especially in high load times.


A range of HP and Microsoft support is available.